AZERBAIJAN NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
“SMART CITY” CONCEPT: CURRENT STATE, APPLICATION FIELDS, AND PROBLEMS
Mammad A. Hashimov

Recently, the term “smart city” (SC) has become widely used in scientific conferences, workshops, technology forums, political organizations and even in citizens’ daily lives. SC is considered a promising solution to provide effective services to citizens using Information and Communication Technologies. (ICT). The goal of establishing SC is to raise the welfare of citizens and increase the efficiency of urban services. The paper provides information on the current state and future perspectives of SC. Here, the main components required to obtain the status of SC have been analyzed. The paper also studies the advanced technologies used in the implementation of the concepts of SC. The network standards used for data collection and transmission in SC environment have been presented. Moreover, the paper provides information on the services delivered in SC environment, their benefits for citizens and government agencies. The paper also investigates the cities that have successfully implemented SC projects in various countries around the world. The existing problems in the implementation of the SC concept were analyzed and certain suggestions were proposed. Comparative analysis and systematic approach methods were used in the implementation of the study. The results obtained in the paper can be used to solve the scientific and theoretical problems of SC concept, as well as in the formation of this concept (pp.95-107).

Keywords:“Smart City”, “Smart City” components, network standards, “Smart City” challenges.
DOI : 10.25045/jpis.v12.i2.07
References
  • UN Press release, https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-PressRelease.pdf
  • Achıg hökumatin tashvigina dair 2020–2022-ji illar üchün Milli Faaliyyat Planı, https://www.president.az/articles/35990
  • “Aghıllı shahar” (Smart Jity) va “aghıllı kand” (Smart Villaġe) konsepsiyasının hazırlanması haggında Azarbayjan Respublikası Prezidentinin saranjamı, https://www.president.az/articles/51179
  • Augustyn Smart Cities – brand cities of the future / Conference: The Business of Place: Critical, Practical and Pragmatic Perspectives, 2013, pp. 1-11.
  • Ayca K., Ondrej K., Attila K., M. Fatih T. Future Trends and Current State of Smart City Concepts: A Survey // IEEE Access, vol. 8, 2020, pp.86448 – 86467.
  • Chun S.L, Youwei J., Zhekang D., Dongxiao W., Yingshan T., Qi H. L., Richard T.K.W., Ahmed F.Z, Ruiheng W., Loi L.L. A Review of Technical Standards for Smart Cities // Clean Technologies vol. 2, no. 3, 2020, pp.290-310.
  • Aliguliyev R.M., Mahmudov R.Sh. Ashyaların Interneti: mahiyyati, imkanları va problemlari // Informasiya jamiyyati problemlari, 2011, №2(4), s.29–40.
  • Mammadova M.H., Jabrayılova Z.G. Daniz neft platformasında personalın fiziolozhi vaziyyatinin va joghrafi mövgeyinin monitoringinda ashyaların internetinin imkanları // Informasiya tekhnoloġiyaları problemlari, 2018, №2, s.3–17.
  • Eiman A.N., Hind A.N., Nader M., Jameela A.J. Applications of big data to smart cities // Journal of Internet Services and Applications, vol. 6, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1-15.
  • Mell P., Grance T. The NIST definition of cloud computing, 2010, http://www.nist.gov/itl/cloud/upload/cloud-def-v15.pdf.
  • Alakbarov R.G., Hashimov M.A. Bulud tekhnologiyaları: khidmatlar, problemlar va tatbig sahalari // Informasiya tekhnologiyaları problemlari, 2016, №1, s.3–10.
  • Hashimov M.A. Ashyalarin interneti mühitinda fog tekhnologiyasindan istifada masalalari // Informasiya tekhnologiyaları problemlari, 2020, №2, s.80–90.
  • Arsénio A., Serra H., Francisco R., Nabais F., Andrade J., Serrano E. Internet of Intelligent Things: Bringing artificial intelligence into things and communication networks // Stud. Comput. Intell., 2014. vol.495, pp.1–37.
  • Laura G., Jose M.J., Miran T., Jaime L. Wireless Technologies for IoT in Smart Cities // Network Protocols and Algorithms, vol. 10, no. 1, 2018, pp.23-64.
  • Saber T. , Miadreza S., Pierluigi S., Vincenzo L., Aurelio T., João P.S.C. A Review of Smart Cities Based on the Internet of Things Concept // Energies, vol. 10, no. 4, 2017, pp. 1-23.
  • Alexandru L., Valentin P. Internet of Things and LoRaTM Low-Power WideArea Networks: A Survey / 2017 International Symposium on Signals, Circuits and Systems (ISSCS), 13-14 July 2017, pp. 1-5.
  • Arasteh H., Hosseinnezhad V., Loia V., Tommasetti A., Troisi O., Shafie-khah M., Siano P. Iot-based Smart Cities: a Survey / The 16th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, 2016, pp. 1-6.
  • Pukha Y., Sidorov G., Khakhulin S. The Internet of Things for Smart Cities, https://www.pwc.ru/en/assets/iot-for-cities-eng.pdf
  • Badis H., Rida K., Sherali Z., Achraf F., Lyes K. Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for Smart Cities // ET Research Journals, 2015, pp. 1–14.
  • Talamo C., Pinto M.R., Viola S., Atta N. Smart cities and enabling technologies: influences on urban Facility Management services / IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,  296, 30 July 2019, https://www.iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/296/1/012047/pdf
  • Radovan N., Radek K.,Jaroslav K. Smart City Concept, Applications and Services // Journal of Telecommunications System & Management, vol.3, Issue 2, 2014, https://www.hilarispublisher.com/open-access/smart-city-concept-applications-and-services-2167-0919-117.pdf
  • Andrea Z., Nicola B., Angelo C., Lorenzo V., Michele Z. Internet of Things for Smart Cities // IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1,  1, 2014, pp. 22 – 32.
  • Ibrar Y., Ibrahim A.T.H., Yasir M., Abdullah G., Salimah M., Sghaier G. Enabling Communication Technologies for Smart Cities // IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55,  1, 2017, pp. 112 – 120.
  • Ferrer J. Barcelona’s Smart City vision: an opportunity for transformation // The journal of field actions, Special Issue 16, 2017.
  • Singapore as a Smart City. https://www.thalesgroup.com/en/worldwide-digital-identity-and-security/iot/magazine/singapore-worlds-smartest-city
  • Ruben S., Adria´n N., Jesus S., Aritz B., Rube´n M., Unai Z., Gorka A., Aitor A. Smart cities survey: Technologies, application domains and challenges for the cities of the future // International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 15 no. 6, 2019, pp.1-36.
  • Yasir M., Farhan A., Ibrar Y., Asma A., Muhammad I., Sghaier G. Internet-of-Things Based Smart Cities: Recent Advances and Challenges // IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55,  9, 2017, pp. 16 – 24.
  • MyWaterToronto, https://www.toronto.ca/services-payments/water-environment/how-to-use-less-water/mywatertoronto/
  • Wouter H.N.E., Robin E., Efthymios C. The Internet of Things as Smart City Enabler: The Cases of Palo Alto, Nice and Stockholm // Digital Transformation for a Sustainable Society in the 21st Century, 2019, pp.293-304.
  • Ejaz A., Abdullah G., Mohsen G. Internet of Things based Smart Environments: State-of-the-art, Taxonomy, and Open Research Challenges // IEEE Wıreless Communıcatıons, vol. 23, no. 5, 2016, pp.10-16.
  • Narmeen Z.B., Jawwad A.S. Smart City Architecture: Vision and Challenges // International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol. 6, no. 11, 2015, pp.246-255.
  • Mostafa B., Mahmoud G., Mohsen D., Nasrin M.H. International Challenges of Smart Cities // Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, vol. 10, no. 20, 2017, pp.79-90.
  • Abbas S.S., Daniel S.S., Anup K., Adel E. IoT in Smart Cities: A Survey of Technologies, Practices and Challenges // Smart Cities, vol. 4, 2021, pp.429–475.
  • Elias Z. T, Vangelis A., Alexandros F., David G., Cosmin-Septimiu N., George O., Henrich C. P., Anastasius G. Enabling Reliable and Secure IoT-based Smart City Applications / The First International Workshop on Pervasive Systems for Smart Cities, 2014, pp.111-116.